The NEON Design Consortium—160 volunteer scientists, educators and engineers—played a critical role in determining the scientific and educational requirements that must be supported by NEON. The work of the Consortium resulted in the Integrated Science and Education Plan (ISEP). This document outlines the continental-scale stratification scheme employed in the NEON design. It also describes the observatory infrastructure in terms of the Fundamental Instrument Unit (FIU), Fundamental Sentinel Unit (FSU), Mobile Relocatable System (MRS), Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), and Land-use Analysis Package (LUAP). The ISEP also outlines the infrastructural requirements for the effective integration of NEON education and science, and how NEON will transform scientific ways of thinking. The lead authors of this document are: Christopher Field, Ruth DeFries, David Foster, Morgan Grove, Rob Jackson, Beverly Law, David Lodge, Debra Peters, and David Schimel.